By A. Medina Sr. (September 2022)

1) Redfern, Redfern. “Seeley Spared From Intense River Bottom Fire”. Imperial Valley Press. 6/1/2022.

2) Isom, A. Roger. “The End of Ag Burning in the San Joaquin Valley”. West Coast Nut. July 15, 2021.

3) Curtis, L. Walker. “CA State Senator Dean Florez Urges Air Board Not To Extend Burn Ban”. California Newswire. Wednesday May 26th, 2010.

4) Fuller, Richard. “Pollution and Health: A Progress Update”. The Lancet Planetary Health. May 17, 2022.

5) IV4Change <> is administered by

Arturo Medina.

6) Flight Pattern Kids (FPK) is an environmental justice research group with data online.

7) Econciencia y Salud <> is a non-profit sponsored by Dr. Astrid Calderas.



by Susy Boyd (September 2022)

1) Inland Deserts Working Group (IDWG) Science Team, chaired by Robin Kobaly (The SummerTree Institute); Moises Cisneros (Sierra Club); Sendy Barrows (COFEM); Pat Flanagan, Arch McCulloch, and Dr. Gary Stiler (Morongo Basin Conservation Association); Dr. Michael Allen (UC Riverside); Joan Taylor (Sierra Club); Dr. Cameron Barrows (UC Riverside) and Susy Boyd (MDLT).

2) Desert Report, March 2019.

3) Richardson, L., C. Huber, Z. Zhu, and L. Koontz. 2014. Terrestrial carbon sequestration in national parks: Values for the conterminous United States. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/EQD/NRR—2014/880. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado.



by Chris Clarke (August 2022)






REFERENCES FOR: Solar Photovoltaics in the Energy Transformation
by Robert Freehling (August 2022)

1) History of Solar Energy • Museum Of Solar Energy (

2) Renewables Global Status Report - REN21.

3) Electricity generation, capacity, and sales in the United States - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

4) Competitive Cost Dynamics: The Experience Curve (

5) What Is the Learning Curve—and What Does It Mean for Solar Power and for Electric Vehicles? - Union of Concerned Scientists (

6) Race Heats Up For Title Of Cheapest Solar Energy In The World (

7) bp energy charting tool | Energy economics | Home.

8) Global Warming of 1.5 ºC — (

9) The Paris Agreement | UNFCCC.

10) Chapter 2 — Global Warming of 1.5 ºC (

11) Renewables Global Status Report - REN21.

12) California Electrical Energy Generation.

13) Utility scale solar provided ~36,000 gigawatt-hours in 2020, 13% of the state’s electricity, while small scale customer-sited solar is forecast to generate ~24,000 gigawatt-hours, which is 8% of the state’s electricity in 2022.

2020 Total System Electric Generation (

14) California’s renewable energy law excludes hydropower from plants larger than 30 megawatts, as well as small solar projects providing electricity for customers’ own consumption, even though both are “renewable” by conventional definition and for model pathways in the IPCC 1.5C report.

15) Current California GHG Emission Inventory Data | California Air Resources Board.

16) Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) Program (

17) Bill Text - SB-100 California Renewables Portfolio Standard Program: emissions of greenhouse gases.

18) Bill Text - SB-1 Electricity: solar energy: net metering. (

19) CaliforniaDGStats.

20) Bill Text - SB-350 Clean Energy and Pollution Reduction Act of 2015. (

21) Emission Performance Standard - SB 1368 (

22) ARB Emissions Trading Program (

23) Impact – CalCCA (

24) Microsoft Word - 2021 RPS Annual Report to the Legislature - Energy Division Final (

25) Renewable Tracking Progress (

26) Solar Market Insight Report 2022 Q2 | SEIA.

27) Air Pollution from Fossil Fuels Costs $8 Billion Per Day, New Research Finds - Yale E360.

28) Putin is likely to completely cut off Russian gas supply to Europe, French minister says (

29) CAISO, CPUC, CEC Issue Final Report on Causes of August 2020 Rotating Outages.

30) Texas grid operator asks users to conserve energy amid scorching heat (


by Pat Flanagan (August 2022

1) Page 26.

2) .

3) .

4) .

5) Zimbelman, SH Williams, VP Tchakerian. Sand transport paths in the Mojave Desert, southwestern United States. Desert aeolian processes, 1995

6) Great Basin Unified Air Pollution Control District (GBUAPCD) Rule 433



by Dustin Mulvaney (AUGUST 2022)


2) Hoffacker, M. K., Allen, M. F., & Hernandez, R. R. (2017). Land-sparing opportunities for solar energy development in agricultural landscapes: a case study of the Great Central Valley, CA, United States. Environmental Science & Technology51(24), 14472-14482.




6) Walston, L. J., Li, Y., Hartmann, H. M., Macknick, J., Hanson, A., Nootenboom, C., Loonsdorf, & Hellmann, J. (2021). Modeling the ecosystem services of native vegetation management practices at solar energy facilities in the Midwestern United States. Ecosystem Services47, 101227.

7) Hernandez, Rebecca, Alona Armstrong, Jennifer Burney, Greer Ryan, Kara Moore, Ibrahima Diedhiou, Steven M. Grodsky, Leslie Saul-Gershenz, Davis R., Jordan Macknick, Dustin Mulvaney, Garvin A. Heath, Shane B. Easter, Brenda Beatty, Michael F. Allen, and Daniel M. Kammen. (2019). Techno–ecological synergies of solar energy for global sustainability. Nature Sustainability2(7), 560-568.

8) Almeida, R. M., Schmitt, R., Grodsky, S. M., Flecker, A. S., Gomes, C. P., Zhao, L., ... & McIntyre, P. B. (2022). Floating solar power could help fight climate change—let’s get it right.

9) Trapani, K., & Redón Santafé, M. (2015). A review of floating photovoltaic installations: 2007–2013. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications23(4), 524-532.

10) S&P Global. China restricts solar, wind power projects in inland waters, cites flood control. June 9, 2022.

11) China Dialogue. Wind and Solar projects banned from freshwater bodies. June 1, 2022.



by Dave Rosenfeld

1) Vibrant Clean Energy, July 2021, Role of Distributed Generation in Decarbonizing California by 2045. <>.

2) See Utility Dive breakdown of this CA Independent Systems Operator report. <>.

3) Benenson Strategy Group public opinion poll of rooftop solar, Jan 2021.

4) Utility proposal to CPUC, March 2021, p. 42 including Fig. 6. <>.

5) See footnote 1.

6) Utilities' response to CalSSA data request in the NEM proceeding. The utilities did not provide the source of their calculations in their proposal to the CA Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). However, in response to a data request from the CA Solar & Storage Association (CALSSA), the utilities provided a spreadsheet and represented it as the source of their claim. See either the "Cost Shift NEM 1.0", 2.0 and 3.0 tabs. Formula for calculating the Cost Shift simply uses customer savings at full retail rates for different components times a figure for annual production. The correct method should only calculate the cost of compensating solar users for exported solar energy, not total annual production, since solar users are only credited for exports.

7) Utilities' response to CalSSA data request in the NEM proceeding, General Inputs tab D4:E15 feed into Tabs "Cost Shift NEM 1.0", 2.0 and 3.0 tabs, using single-year snapshots of benefits over a ten year period (2020 to 2030).

8) Protect Our Communities Foundation, 7/16/21, Rebuttal testimony of Bill Powers, P.E. pp. 16-17; 39-41 <>.

9) Protect Our Communities Foundation, pp. 18-23

10) California ISO, 3/24/21, 2020-2021 Transmission Plan, p. 1 <>.

11) Protect Our Communities Foundation, pp. 35-39

12) CA Public Utilities Commission: Utility Costs and Affordability of the Grid of the Future - this is the topic of the entire report. <>.

13) Edison Electric Institute, 4/2016, Communications Handbook: A Guide to the Future of Energy (“Cost shift” strategy starts on p. 22) <>.

14) Inside Climate News, 2/8/22, Is the California Coalition Fighting Subsidies For Rooftop Solar a Fake Grassroots Group? <>; Solar Rights Alliance, 3/2022, CA Utility Industry Campaign Contributions 2017-2022 <>.

15) E3 Client List

16) Verdant, Net Energy Metering 2.0 Lookback Study, January 2021. Methodology description on p. 40 "Verdant calculated the cost-effectiveness and cost to serve NEM 2.0 customers using a model built for this study. The model accounts for a customer’s consumption, retail rate (including changes to retail rates over time), and distributed energy resource (DER) characteristics when calculating bill savings, cost-effectiveness, and cost of service.” <>.

17) E3 and Verdant: Alternative Ratemaking Mechanisms for Distributed Energy Resources in California, January 2021, explicitly includes self-generation and consumption as a cost: "Total costs are defined as the bill reductions NEM customers receive due to the total generation from their customer-sited renewable generation systems (i.e., bill reductions from onsite use as well as from exports) plus the cost of interconnecting these systems and the incremental metering costs incurred by the utilities to track their generation (p. 11). In addition, if there is any question about the author's bias, the paper refers back to the NEM Lookback Study cited in footnote 19 above: "The recent Net-Energy Metering 2.0 Lookback Study completed by Verdant Associates, with input from E3 and Itron, found that the compensation given to participating NEM customers for load reductions and grid exports greatly exceeds the incremental benefits." (p. 8) This sentence reveals how the authors let their bias creep into the methodology of both studies. In fact, solar users are not compensated for reducing their energy load, they are only credited for the extra energy they share back to the grid. This sentence only makes sense if you've decided to count load reduction as a cost.

18) E3 and Verdant: Alternative Ratemaking Mechanisms for Distributed Energy Resources in California, January 2021, page 29 Figure 8 shows avoided cost values for just one year, rather than 20 years. Had E3 looked at 20 years, the 2020 avoided costs would have been 12 cents per kWh rather than the 6 cents in the table.

19) Counting solar energy consumed on-site as a cost: NRDC proposal to CPUC, March 2021, p. 7 "To summarize, the NEM 2.0 Lookback Study found that the NEM 2.0 program currently fails multiple California Standard Practice Manual (SPM) cost-effectiveness tests. Most importantly, the Lookback Study found that the NEM program isn’t fulfilling its statutory mandate to ensure that benefits from NEM are equal to or greater than the costs borne by all ratepayers. The CPUC NEM Successor Tariff Whitepaper confirmed these findings."

20) Omitting over a decade of rooftop solar benefits: NRDC proposal to CPUC, March 2021, pp. 3, 11 & 20 acknowledge that rooftop solar systems last 25-30 years in their proposal to the CPUC. Yet, in their opening comments to the CPUC filed in October 2020, NRDC used just a single year of rooftop solar's benefits (2020) to make the claim of a cost shift (p. 4 last graf). NRDC's presentation to the CPUC on March 23, 2021, slide 8, admits that they omit most of the years that solar benefits the grid, and shows what the benefits would be if we looked out to 2040 (blue line). NRDC amazingly stated they prefer to compare rooftop solar's benefits to existing fossil fuel generation (orange line) rather than projected large-scale renewables (blue line), even though we are not building any new fossil fuel plants. <>.

21) TURN proposal to CPUC, March 2021, p. 11. TURN's proposal does not offer supporting calculations to justify its cost shift claim, but TURN's proposal to impose a fee on solar users based on the total amount of solar energy they produce indicates the organization also incorrectly counts the solar energy produced and consumed on-site as a "cost" to other ratepayers. <>.

22) Wikipedia entry on John Bryson

23])Reprinted article from SF Bay Guardian, 10/8/97, The Private Energy Elite: How the Energy Foundation has abandoned environmentalists and used big money to greenwash the private utility industry.

24) LA Times, 7/15/2019, PG&E’s bankruptcy could slow California’s fight against climate change

25] Southern California Edison company's, San Diego Gas & Electric Company’s, and Natural Resources Defense Council’s application for rehearing of resolution, 7/25/2016

26) Counting solar energy consumed on-site as a cost: Public Advocate's Office proposal to CPUC, March 2021 and response to data request from CALSSA. Description of methodology on page 11. Like the utilities, they count all total solar production as a "cost", rather than simply the cost of crediting solar users for their excess energy.

27) Omitting over a decade of rooftop solar benefits: Public Advocate's office response to CALSSA data request in NEM proceeding, Their chart appears to be a close replication of the utilities' chart cited in footnote 25, with a similar problematic accounting method.

28) Counting solar energy consumed on-site as a cost: Energy Institute at the Haas School of Business at UC Berkeley: Designing Electricity Rates for An Equitable Energy Transition, February 2021. Section 5-4 pp. 27-28. <> Findings calculated by creating a fictional scenario in which solar customers paid the utility for their on-site solar consumption and then "reduced" all rates with those funds. This method relies on two problematic assumptions: a) customers who make their own energy and thus buy less energy from the grid do not pay their correct share of grid costs and; b) their solar does not measurably reduce the cost of long-distance power lines (see Appendix Sections 1-2 and 1-3 pp. 3-4). The underlying thinking is explained in the Executive Summary to his February 2021 report (p. 5): " recovering total system costs through high volumetric prices, California’s IOUs are now operating a pricing scheme that sends misleading signals about the true cost to society of consuming electricity.” Haas' version of "true cost" is that consuming less is bad, and consuming more is good.

29) Omitting over a decade of rooftop solar benefits: UC Berkeley Haas School of Business: Designing Electricity Rates for An Equitable Energy Transition, February 2021. The calculations in this report look only at a single year of rooftop solar benefits in 2019. This is confirmed in the supporting documentation: Appendix refers to their data repository,folder "2019", file "ACC 2019 v1b", tab "Dashboard", cell G7 is set to just one year. The proper method is to set this to at least 20 years.

30) Energy Institute at Haas, Funder list, results of public records request showing $223,000 in donations from the IOUs since 2018. More about the Energy Institute on the Solar Rights Alliance blog.



  by Bill Powers (August 2022)

1) B. Powers, Local clean energy or remote who wins the battle?, Clean Coalition webinar, June 23, 2021, p. 3:

2) California Distributed Generation Statistics, accessed June 24, 2022:

3)  California Distributed Generation Statistics, Stats & Charts, 2021 capacity additions, accessed June 18, 2022:

4) CAISO, Todays Outlook - Renewables trend, June 11, 2022:

5) CAISO, Draft 20-Year Transmission Outlook, February 7, 2022, p. 17:

6) Ibid, p. 11.

7) CPUC, Utility Costs and Affordability of the Grid of the Future, February 2021, Table 10: Large CAISO-approved Transmission Projects, p. 38.

8) PCF February 22, 2022 Local Clean Energy Forum: $254 million/yr ÷ 2,873,543 MWh/yr (1,264 MW of solar and wind) = $88.4/MWh.

9) B. Powers, Local clean energy or remote who wins the battle?, Clean Coalition webinar, June 23, 2021, p. 12.

10) NREL, U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System and Energy Storage Cost Benchmark: Q1 2020, January 2021, pp. 102-103, Attachment B [Commercial Rooftop (200 kW), High resource (CF 20.4%), ITC]; NREL press release, New Reports From NREL Document Continuing PV and PV-Plus-Storage Cost Declines, November 12, 2021:

11) Ibid.

12) CAISO, Transmission Capability Estimates for use in the CPUCs Resource Planning Process, July 19, 2021, Table 3-1: Updated transmission capability estimates, p. 6:

13) Ibid.

14) [($3.7 billion ÷ $1.883 billion) x $254 million/yr] ÷ [(1,412 MW ÷1,264 MW) x 2,873,543 MWh/yr] = $155/MWh.

15) $3.7 billion ÷ 1,412 MW = $2.6 million/MW.

16) NREL press release, New Reports From NREL Document Continuing PV and PV-Plus-Storage Cost Declines, November 12, 2021: Cost of 100 MW single-axis tracking solar = $0.89/Wdc ($890,000/MWdc).

17) $2.6 million/MW (transmission) + 0.9 million/MW (solar generation) = $3.5 million/MW.

18) battery storage capacity = 2.4 MWh.

19) NREL, U.S. Solar Photovoltaic System and Energy Storage Cost Benchmarks: Q1 2021, Figure 20 (collocated PV plus battery, direct current coupled), November 12, 2021, p. 32. The solar dc-to-ac conversion efficiency is assumed to be 90 percent (to convert dc capacity to ac capacity). $2,055,000/MWdc ÷ 0.9 ac/dc = $2,283,000/MWac.

20) CPUC press release, CPUC Approves Edison Solar Roof Program (June 18, 2009), available at (Attachment 36).

21) EPA press release, Governor Schwarzenegger honored with EPA's Climate Change Champion Award, December 2, 2010:; complete speech (Vote Smart):

22) CPUC, D.16-06-044, Decision Granting (SCE) Petition for Modification and to Terminate the Solar Photovoltaic Program, June 23, 2016:

23) E3 and B&V, Summary of PV Potential Assessment in RETI and the 33% Implementation Analysis, CPUC Re-DEC Working Group Meeting, December 9, 2009, p. 24. Total Statewide Large Rooftop Potential = 11,543 MW.

24) Clean Coalition, San Diego Solar Siting Survey, Task 2.2, Final Summary Report: Solar Photovoltaic (PV). Commercial-Scale Sites for 1,000 kWac and Larger, September 2019, p. 10. “. . . parking lots and parking structures represent approximately 75% of the potential found in this survey . . .”

25) Basin & Range Watch Comment Letter to the DRECP, DRECP: The Better Alternative, January 30, 2015, Attachment - Parking Lot Solar Potential in California: Parking lot solar potential in California = 39,500 MW.



REFERENCES FOR: distributed energy resources in urban load centers
            by Jay Powell (August 2022)

1) DERs in this context mean rooftop and parking lot solar with associated battery storage.

2) CPUC R.20-08-020 (NEM Proceeding), Opening Brief of the Protect Our Communities Foundation, August 31, 2021:

3) ABC 10 New, Green Homes Tour gives San Diegans a look at efficient options (video), October 18, 2019:

4) Microgrid Knowledge, With San Diego Airport Microgrid, No More Blackouts and $6.4M/year Saved, October 26, 2018. See:

5) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Microgrids – UCSD, 2019. See:

6) Sunrun, Smart, Clean Neighborhood Grids: Redesigning Our Electric System to Help Communities Power Through Blackouts, February 2020, p. 9. See:

7) Abstract, p iii. Accelerating the Deployment of Advanced Energy Communities: The Oakland EcoBlock. 2019 California Energy Commission. Publication Number: CEC-500-2019-043.

8) “A Conversation on the Opportunities, Challenges and Policy Recommendations for Community-driven Microgrids”, a March 24, 2022 presentation to California Alliance for Community Energy (Join page, here ), Allie Detrio, Chief Strategist, Reimagine Power. See: (this is an excellent introduction with graphics on community-based microgrids)

9)  FERC 2222-B: “Participation of Distributed Energy Resource Aggregations in Markets Operated by Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators”, a Rule published in the Federal Register by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission on 03/30/2021.


11) Performance Based Regulation

12) “Peninsula Clean Energy issues Solar and Solar + Storage Request for Proposal (RFP) for Public Facilities” and

“City of Goleta initiates General Plan Amendment process for the accommodation of a 30 MW / 120 MWh battery energy storage system in the Goleta Load Pocket” - Clean Coalition 30 June 2022 Midyear Newsletter. See news and projects and policy at:



by Loretta Lynch (August 2022)

1) Proposed Decision issued December 13, 2021, in R.20-08-020. See

2) 116 FERC ¶ 61,057, 18 CFR Part 35 (Issued July 20, 2006.)

3) See California Public Utilities Commission Report: Utility Costs and Affordability of the Grid of the Future: An Evaluation of Electric Costs, Rates, and Equity Issues Pursuant to P.U. Code Section 913.1, p. 38, Table 7 (May 2021.)

4) ALJ Ruling Setting Aside Submission of the Record to Take Comments on A Limited Basis, May 9, 2022.  See

5) Pub.Util. Code ₷2827.1 requires the PUC to ensure that the tariff is based on the costs and benefits of rooftop solar ,(b)(3) and that the PUC ensure that the total benefits equal the total costs, (b)(4).

6) Amy Green, DeSantis Vetoes Rooftop Solar Legislation, Siding with Clean Energy Advocates (April 28, 2022.) WUSF



by Dustin Mulvaney (August 2022)

1) Pellow, D., & Park, L. S. H. (2002). The Silicon Valley of dreams: Environmental injustice, immigrant workers, and the high-tech global economy. NYU Press.

2) Homeland Security. 2022. Strategy to prevent the importation of good mined, produced, or manufactured with forced labor in the People's Republic of China. Report to Congress. June 17, 2022.

3) Murphy, L. and Elimä. (2021). In Broad Daylight: Uyghur Forced Labour and Global Solar Supply Chains.

4) Laws, R. L., Cooksey, G. S., Jain, S., Wilken, J., McNary, J., Moreno, E., ... & Materna, B. (2018). Coccidioidomycosis outbreak among workers constructing a solar power farm—Monterey County, California, 2016–2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report67(33), 931.

5) (2010). Native Tribe Protects Lizard, Creation Myth. Indian Country Today.

6) Grodsky, S. M., & Hernandez, R. R. (2020). Reduced ecosystem services of desert plants from ground-mounted solar energy development. Nature Sustainability3(12), 1036-1043.

7) Bathke, J. P. (2014). Ocotillo wind: a case study of how tribal-federal governmental consultation is failing tribal governments and their spiritual landscapes through renewable energy development. Human Geography7(2), 46-59.



by Tyson Siegele (August 2022)

[1] California Independent System Operator, Key Statistics, (June 2022), p. 2, available at

[1] Senate Bill 100 Report (“SB 100 Report”), Study Scenario (March 15, 2021), p. 75-76, available at

[1] California Air Resources Board, Public Hearing to Consider the Proposed

Advanced Clean Cars II Regulations (April 12, 2022), Table XI-1, p. 174, available at

[1] Ocko, I. B. and Hamburg, S. P.: Climate consequences of hydrogen leakage, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. [preprint],, in review, 2022.

[1] California Independent System Operator, California ISO Peak Load History 1998 through 2021, available at

[1] LevelTen Energy, Q1 2022 PPA Price Index Executive Report (2022), pp. 9-10, available at

[1] California Public Utilities Commission, Incremental ELCC Study for Mid-Term

Reliability Procurement (Updated), (October 22, 2021) Table ES2, p. 9, available at

[1] Google Project Sunroof, Estimated rooftop solar potential of California (November 2018), available at

[1] California Independent System Operator, 20-year Transmission Outlook (January 31, 2022) available at

[1] Sepulveda, N.A., Jenkins, J.D., Edington, A. et al. The design space for long-duration energy storage in decarbonized power systems. Nat Energy 6, 506–516 (2021), (31% is the average of the “round-trip efficiency” ranges shown in Table 1 for the “power-H2-power” technologies.), available at

[1] SB 100 Report, p. 109 (“Production costs are not cost-competitive with other sources of storage and generation…”).

[1] SDG&E, Schedule TOU-DR1 Residential Time-of-Use, (May 16, 2022), p. 2, (Summer On-Peak Total Rate = 0.69008), available at



by Birgitta Jansen (August 2022)

  1. Electricity Explained; Use of Electricity. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) last updated May 3, 2022.

Accessed May 2, 2022

  1. Clean-Car rules: California unveils proposed measure to ban new gasoline-fueled cars, by, Rachel Becker, April 12, 2022. Cal Matters.

Accessed June 2022

  1. Energy Commission Adopts Updated Building Standards to improve Efficiency, Reduce Emissions from Homes and Businesses. California Energy Commission, News Release, August 11, 2021.   (Session Timed Out)
  2. WHAT IS 5G RAN? Ericsson Networks (video clip). Accessed June 19, 2022.

Everything you need to know about 5G, Qualcomm- the world’s leading wireless technology innovator.   Accessed June 19, 2022

  1. Ibid (video clip).
  2. 5 Things You Should Know About 5G Cellular, by Lou Frenzel, July 10, 2015. Microwaves & RF accessed June 19, 2022.
  3. Ibid.
  4. WHAT IS 5G RAN? Ericsson Networks. Accessed June 19, 2022.

Mobile data traffic outlook; 5G share of mobile traffic growing.  Ericsson Networks. Accessed July 3, 2022

  1. 5G Webinar: Why is 5G so power hungry? What can engineers do about it? By Martin Rowe, February 10 2022. 5G Technology World. Accessed June 6, 2022.
  2. 5G Mobile Networks: A systems Approach. Chapter 3: Basic Architecture. By Systems Approach LLC 2022. Accessed June 28, 2022.
  3. Operators facing power crunch by Matt Walker, March 27, 2020. MTN Consulting.  Accessed June 13, 2022
  4. 5G Base stations use a lot more energy than 4G base stations. By Linda Hardesty.  MTN.  April 3, 2020. Accessed June 28, 2022.
  5. WHAT WILL 5G MEAN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT? By Claire Curran, January 30, 2020. The Henry M Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. accessed June 12, 2022.
  6. Infrastructure. By Nathan Peres.  Accessed June 18, 2022.
  7. 5G Mobile Networks: A Systems Approach. Chapter 3: Basic Architecture. By Systems Approach LLC 2022. Accessed June 28, 2022.
  8. 5G-era Mobile Network Cost Evolution, August 28, 2019. June 17, 2022
  9. Operators facing power crunch by Matt Walker, March 27, 2020. MTN Consulting.  Accessed June 13, 2022
  10. 5G Webinar: Why is 5G so power hungry? What can engineers do about it? By Martin Rowe, February 10 2022. 5G Technology World. Accessed June 6, 2022.
  11. Mobile Web Traffic Stats and Facts in 2022. By Ogi Djuraskovic, January 10, 2022.  Accessed July 3, 2022.
  12. A guide to Bitcoin by Jake Frankenfield. June 13, 2022. Accessed June 17, 2022

  1. Forbes Advisor, Why Does Bitcoin Use So Much Energy? John Schmidt, Editor, Farran Powell, Editor. Accessed June 19, 2022.
  2. A guide to Bitcoin. By Jake Frankenfield. June 13, 2022. Accessed June 13 and 17, 2022

  1. Making sense of bitcoin, cryptocurrency and blockchain – PwC. .  Accessed June 17, 2022

  1. The daunting task of making cryptocurrency climate-friendly. By Neel Dhanesha,Apr 18, 2022 VOX.  Accessed April 19, 2022
  2. Ibid. Accessed April 21, 2022
  3. Why Does Bitcoin Use So Much Energy?. John Schmidt, Editor. Farran Powell, Editor. Fact Checked. Updated: May 18, 2022. Forbes Advisor.  Accessed June 19, 2022.

  1. What is a Data Center? Accessed June 28, 2022. Palo Alto Networks (gobal cybersecurity); Cyberpedia
  2. What is a Data Center. Cisco Systems Canada Co, Data Center Virtualization. Accessed June 28, 2022.
  3. Data Center power Design and Features; Digital Reality.   Accessed May 27, 2022.
  4. What Does Data Cabinet Mean? Safeopedia Inc.  Accessed July 29, 2022.
  5. The Real Amount of Energy A Data Center Uses. By Clarissa Garcia, AKCP, February, 2022.,require%20104%20TWh%20in%202020. Accessed May 27, 2022.
  6. How much energy do data centers consume? By Paul Kirvan. Published April 26, 2022 Accessed May 27, 2022.

  1. The Real Amount of Energy A Data Center Uses. By Clarissa Garcia, AKCP, February, 2022.,require%20104%20TWh%20in%202020. Accessed May 27, 2022.
  2. How Google Powers Its Monopoly With Enough Electricity For Entire Countries. By Robert Bryce, Contributor, October 21, 2020.  Accessed June 19, 2022.
  3. Ibid
  4. Ibid.
  5. A Summer of Blackouts? Wheezing Power Grid leaves States At Risk.  Why the grid could buckle in large areas of the country as temperatures rise. By Evan Halper.  June 2, 2022.

Accessed July 5, 2022.



by Craig Deutsche (August 2022)

1) Birgitta Jansen, “The Greening of America,” Desert Report, September 2021.

2) Ferruccio Ferroni and Robert J. Hopkirk, “Energy Return on energy invested (ERoEI) for photovoltic solar systems in regions of moderate insolation,” Energy Policy 94, 336-344 (April 26, 2016). <>

3) Previous articles in this issue, Desert Report, special issue 2022.

4) Richard York, “Do Alternative Energy Sources Displace Fossil Fuels?” Nature Climate Change, Letters, 18 March 2012. <>

5) U.S. Energy Information Administration,“Total U.S. electricity consumption in 2021 was about 3.93 trillion kWh and 13 times greater than electricity use in 1950.” <>

6) Kenneh Small and Van Dender, Kurt, “Fuel Efficiency and Motor Vehicle Travel: The Declining Rebound Effect,” The  Energy Journal, Nov. 1, 2007 <>

7) INOUE NOZOMU† (Ph.D.Candidate,Aoyama Gakuin University), MATSUMOTO SHIGERU‡ (Faculty of Economics, Aoyama Gakuin University) 2017 September 17 <>

8) Orion Lecture: J.B. MacKinnon on The Day the World Stops Shopping, UVicFine Arts, November 9, 2021.   Accessed December 7, 2021


10) Derrick Jensen, Lierre Keith, and MaxWilbert, J, Bright Green Lies, page 436.

11) Jenny Price, Stop Saving the Planet: An Environmentalist Manifesto.

12) Giorgos Kallis, et al, “Research on Degrowth,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 43:291-316 (Volume publication date October 2018)

13) Ida Kubiszewskia, Robert Costanzaa, et al, “Beyond GDP: Measuring and achieving global genuine progress,”  Ecological Economics, Volume 93, September 2013, Pages 57-68,

14) Herman Daly, Toward a Steady State Economy, Freeman 1973


16) Vaclav Smil, Grand Transitions: How the Modern World Was Made, 2021 Oxford University Press.



by Maria Jesus (March 2022)

  3. Mentioned in June 2021 Issue of the Desert Report




by Birgitta Jansen (March 2022)

  1. Freinkel, Susan, , Scientific American, A Brief History of Plastic’s Conquest of the World, May 29, 2011. Accessed January 23, 2022
  2.  Accessed January 14, 2022
  3. A brief history of how plastic has changed our world/ National Geographic. Accessed January 16, 2022
  4. Life Magazine; August 1955. Accessed January 21, 2022
  5. Freinkel, Susan, , Scientific American, A Brief History of Plastic’s Conquest of the World, May 29, 2011. Accessed January 23, 2022
  6. History and Future of Plastics, Science History Institute,, Accessed January 14, 2022.
  7. Recycling was a lie – a big lie – to sell more plastic, industry experts say, The Passionate Eye, Accessed January 4, 2021.
  8. Sullivan, L. (2020). How Big Oil Misled The Public Into Believing Plastic Would be Recycled. National Public Radio (NPR),  September 11.  Retrieved on February 12, 2021, from January 6, 2022
  9. Ibid
  10. Ibid
  11. PBS News Hour. Accessed January 20, 2022
  12. Loria, Kevin. The Big Problem with Plastic. Consumer Reports.  September 8, 2021 Accessed December 30, 2021 Accessed February 7, 2022
  13. Matt Galloway interviews Laura Sullivan. Industry has known for decades that most plastics just can’t be recycled, says investigative journalist. CBC Radio, The Current; October 8, 2020. Accessed October 8, 2021; January 4, 2022.
  14. The Story of Plastic. Accessed January 20, 2022
  15. Science History Institute. Science Matters: The Case of Plastics. Article: History and Future of Plastics. Accessed January 14, 2022.
  16. Ibid
  17. International Pollutions Elimination Network (
  19. PBS News Hour. Accessed January 20, 2022
  20. Ibid
  21. The Story of Plastic, Accessed January 20, 2022
  22. Ibid
  23. Ibid
  24. Ibid
  25. Santhanam, Laura, “most Americans would pay more to avoid using plastic, PBS Newshour, November 26, 2019. Accessed January 20, 2022.
  26. The Plastic Problem. PBS Newshour, November 27, 2019.  accessed January 19, 2022
  27. Tracking your plastic – exposing recycling Myths; September 27, 2019. Accessed January 4, 2022
  28. Zink, Trevor, Geyer, Roland. Material Recycling and the Myth of Landfill Diversion, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 2018. Accessed February 7, 2022
  29. Geyer, Roland, personal communication, February 7, 2022
  30. Accessed February 6, 2022.
  31. Martin Bourque, The Story of Plastic, Accessed January 20, 2022
  32. Accessed January 16, 2022
  33. The New Coal – Plastics and Climate Change, Beyond Plastics, October 2021,
  34. The Story of Plastic, Accessed January 20, 2022
  35. Ibid
  36. Accessed February 6, 2022
  37. Accessed February 6, 2022




by Birgitta Jansen (March 2022)

  1. Orion Lecture: J.B. MacKinnon on The Day the World Stops Shopping, UVicFine Arts, November 9, 2021. Accessed December 7, 2021
  2. Ibid
  3. B. MacKinnon, The Day the World Stops Shopping, Random House Canada, (2021), p. 291
  4. Ibid p. 288
  5. Ibid p. 19
  6. Orion Lecture: J.B. MacKinnon on The Day the World Stops Shopping, UVicFine Arts, November 9, 2021. Accessed December 7, 2021
  7. Telephone Interview with J.M. MacKinnon, December 2, 2021
  8. Orion Lecture: J.B. MacKinnon on The Day the World Stops Shopping, UVicFine Arts, November 9, 2021. Accessed December 7, 2021
  9. Accessed December 17, 2021.
  10. Orion Lecture: J.B. MacKinnon on The Day the World Stops Shopping, UVicFine Arts, November 9, 2021. Accessed December 7, 2021
  11. Ibid
  12. B. MacKinnon, The Day the World Stops Shopping, Random House Canada, (2021),p. 11
  13. Telephone Interview with J.M. MacKinnon, December 2, 2021
  14. B. MacKinnon, The Day the World Stops Shopping, Random House Canada, (2021), p. 90
  15. Ibid p. 91
  16. Telephone Interview with J.M. MacKinnon, December 2, 2021
  17. MacKinnon, The Day the World Stops Shopping, Random House Canada, (2021) p. 90.
  18. Telephone Interview with J.M. MacKinnon, December 2, 2021
  19. B. MacKinnon, The Day the World Stops Shopping, Random House Canada, (2021) p. 186.
  20. Ibid p. 217
  21. Telephone Interview with J.M. MacKinnon, December 2, 2021
  22. Accessed December 17, 2021
  23. Accessed December 17, 2021
  24. A conversation between J.B. MacKinnon and Tzeporah Berman (Adjunct Professor of Environmental Studies at York University) at the Vancouver Public Library, May 18, 2021. Accessed December 10, 2021
  25. B. MacKinnon, The Day the World Stops Shopping, Random House Canada, (2021). P. 239
  26. Telephone Interview with J.M. MacKinnon, December 2, 2021.




by Ruben Pacheco (December 2021)







by John Mirisch (December 2021)

(1) Higher urban densities associated with the worst housing affordability:
(2) Up for Growth organization:
(3) CASSE, Housing Policy:
(4) Energy Sprawl or Energy Efficiency:
(5) Impact of Solar and Wind Development:
(6) CASSE homepage:
(7) Radical Dematerialization and Degrowth:




by Birgitta Jansen (December 2021)

  4. Kolbert, Elizabeth. Under a White Sky, The Nature of the Future, Crown, New York, (2021),
  5. Berman, Tzeporah. The Bad Math of the Fossil Fuel Industry, TED Talk, October 2021. Accessed November 7, 2021.
  6. Kolbert, Elizabeth. Under a White Sky, The Nature of the Future, Crown, New York, (2021),pages 168-172.
  7. Gates, Bill. How to Avoid a Climate Disaster, The Solutions We Have and the Breakthroughs We Need, Alfred A. Knopf and Alfred A. Knopf Canada (2021), p. 94-95.
  8. Seidel, Peter. Uncommon Sense; Shortcomings of the Human Mind for Handling Big-picture, Long-Term Challenges. Steady State Press, Arlington, VA (2020).
  9. Victor, Peter. Slower by Design, not Disaster; Managing Without Growth, Gideon Rosenbluth Memorial 2021 Lecture, 24 February, 2021. Accessed October 13, 2021.
  10. Kallis, Giogos, Paulson, Susan, Giacomo D’Alisa, Federico Demaria.  The Case for Degrowth, Polity Press, Cambridge, MA, 2020.
  11. Accessed October 27, 2021
  13. O’Callahan, Ted, “What is Ecological Economics?”  Yale Insights; Ideas from the Yale School of Management accessed August 28, 2021; October 28, 2021
  14. Ecological Economics, the Transdisciplinary Journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics, Accessed August 28, 2021
  15. Costanza, Robert, Treating Our Societal Addiction to Growth. Presentation, Catchments Otago, Australian National University, 10 April, 2019. accessed August 31, 2021
  16. Deibert, Ronald J. RESET; Reclaiming the Internet for Civil Society, House of Anansi Press, 2020, p. 275.
  17. MacKinnon, J.B. The Day the World Stops Shopping, Random House Canada, (2021) p. 292.
  18. Berman, Tzeporah interviewed by Matt Galloway, CBC Radio, The Current, November 1, 2021. Accessed November 1, 2021.
  19. Berman, Tzeporah. The Bad Math of the Fossil Fuel Industry, TED Talk October 2021, Accessed November 7, 2021
  20. Seidel, Peter. Uncommon Sense; Shortcomings of the Human Mind for Handling Big-picture, Long-Term Challenges.  Steady State Press, Arlington, VA (2020).
  21. Masood, Ehsan. GDP; The World’s Most Powerful Formula and Why it Must Now Change. Icon Books, (2021)
  22. MacKinnon, J.B. The Day the World Stops Shopping, Random House, Canada (2021), p. 6 (United Nations panel of experts on international resources)
  23. Pimentel, David and Marcia Pimentel, “Land, Water And Energy Versus The Ideal U.S. Population”, NPG Forum, 2004,
  24. Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Singh, Anita. “Environmental Issues Surrounding Human Overpopulation,” Research Gate, January 2017, DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1683-5
  25. Uniyal, Shivani, Paliwal, Rashmi; Kaphaliya Saun, Bhumija; Sharma, R.K. Human Overpopulation.  In book: Environmental Issues Surrounding Human Overpopulation.  Research Gate, January 2017. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1683-5.ch001.  accessed:
  26. Harte, John. Human Population as a Dynamic Factor in Environmental Degradation.  Research Gate, May 2007, Population and Environment 28 (4): 223-236.  DOI: 10.1007/s11111-007-0048-3. accessed October 31, 2021
  27. Smil, Vaclav. Growth – From Microorganisms to Megacities.  MIT Press. (2019)
  28. Seidel, Peter. Uncommon Sense; Shortcomings of the Human Mind for Handling Big-picture, Long-Term Challenges.  Steady State Press, Arlington, VA (2020).
  29. Fullerton, Katie, Birth Rates Decrease as People Rise Out of Poverty, May 30, 2013, The Borgen Project,
  30. Pimentel, David and Marcia Pimentel, “Land, Water And Energy Versus The Ideal U.S. Population”, NPG Forum, 2004,



(1) (

(2) Le, L (2012) Hispanic and White Visitors in U.S. National Parks: Meta-Analysis of Visitor Use Survey; Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, Vol 30, No. 4, pp1-20

(3) Le, L, Holmes, N., & De Urioste-Stone (2016) Exploring African American, Latino, and Asian Motivations to Visit a Heritage Site: A Case Study of George Washington Carver National Monument, Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research, Vol. 11, pp.55-71.

(4) (





(1) Nature Needs Half,

(2) Global Deal for Nature,

(3) Half Earth Project,

(4) Convention on Biologcal Diversity,

(5) New York Times,, accessed Aug 1e, 2021.

(6) The Guardian,, accessed Aug 14, 2021.

(7) Executive Ordwe N-82-20,

(8) “About Executive Order N-82-20.”

(9) Topical Workshops,

(10) Using Nature Based Solutions to Advance Equity,

(11) Conserving and Restoring America the Beautiful,

(12) Protected Area Categories,





1) Liter of Light USA Staff, “How are Solar Panels Made? – Solar Panels Materials List,,
accessed July 22, 2021.

2) Silicon (Si),,
accessed July 23, 2021.

3) Ashutosh Mishra, “Impact of silica mining on environment,” Academic Journals,

4) “How Are Solar Panels Produced? The Production of Crystalline Solar Modules,”,
Last updated: 23 March, 2021, accessed July 21, 2021

5) Silicon (Si),,
accessed July 23, 2021.

6) “Electricity consumption in the production of aluminium,” Mr.,,15th July, accessed July 24, 2021.

7) Geoscience Australia, Australian Government, “Aluminium,” Mining,, accessed July 23, 2021.

8) “What Is A Kilowatt-hour (kWh) And What Can It Power?” Electricity Plans,
accessed July 24, 2021.

9) “Controversial Hydroelectric Project Divides Iceland,” Deutsche Welle,, 02/11/2003, accessed July 28, 2021.

10) “Bayer Process”, Wikipedia,,
Last edited 11 June, 2021, accessed July 23, 2021.

11) Liter of Light USA Staff, “How are Solar Panels Made? – Solar Panels Materials List,, accessed July 22,2021.

12) B. Jansen, “Up, Up And Away…But Not Quite -- The Problem with Balloons”, Desert Report, December 11, 2019,
13) Shourabh Gupta, “Rare earth metals are used extensively in clean energy technologies. But how safe are they? Mining and disposal of these elements add to the environmental damages and ecological burden,” Down To Earth, Monday, 18 January, 2021,, accessed July 21, 2021.

14) Ugranath Chakarvarty, “Renewable Energy Materials Supply Indications,” International Association for Energy Economics newsletter, First Quarter 2018, p. 37-39,, accessed July 21, 2021.

15) Dustin Mulvaney, personal communication, July 5, 2021.

16) Atalay Atasu, Serasu Duran, and Luk N. Van Wassenhove, “The Dark Side of Solar Power,” Harvard Business Review, June 18, 2021,, accessed June 19, 2021.

17) “The Power of Wind,” Wind Energy Technologies Office, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, How a Wind Turbine Works – Text Version,, accessed July 25, 2021.

18) Nic Sharpley, Nacelles; How are they manufactured? Windpower, April 13, 2015,, accessed July 24, 2021.

19) Lucy Crane, “Mining Our Way to a Low Carbon Future,” TEDxTruro, January 21, 2020,, accessed July 28, 2021.

20) “Exceptional Engineering: The Making of a Wind Turbine,” February 28, 2020,, accessed July 24, 2021.

21) Benedette Cuffari, M. Sc., Solving the Problem with Wind Turbine Disposal,” AZoCleantech, April 8, 2021,, accessed July 24, 2021.

22) Ibid.

23) Polyacrylonitrile,, accessed July 25, 2021.

24) “How is Carbon Fiber Made?” ZOLTEK Corporation, ., accessed July 25, 2021.

25) Jeremy Deaton, “Scientists are making carbon fiber from plants instead of petroleum,” January 12, 2018, Science Blogs, Nexus Media News,, accessed July 25, 2021.

26) Polyacrylonitrile,, accessed July 25, 2021

27) Acrylonitrile,, accessed July 25, 2021.

28) Lithium,, accessed July 26, 2021.

29) Lucy Crane, “Mining Our Way to a Low Carbon Future,” TEDxTruro, January 21, 2020,, accessed July 28, 2021.

30) Market News, “The Vital Electric Car Battery Component No One is Talking About,” CISION PR Newswire, February 27, 2018,, accessed July 26, 2021.

31) NORTHEAST BATTERY, “What’s the Lifespan of Your Lithium-ion battery?, accessed July 26, 2021

32) Chris Boll, “How Long Do Lithium-Ion Batteries Last?” July 7, 2021, Protool Reviews,, accessed July 26, 2021.

33) Caitlin Stall-Paquet, “The Hidden Cost of Rechargeable Batteries,” The Walrus, published April 13, 2021 (updated June 8, 2021),, July 25, 2021.

34) Ian Morse, “Millions of electric cars are coming. What happens to all the dead batteries?” May 20, 2021, Science Magazine,, accessed July 26, 2021.

35) Lucy Crane, “Mining Our Way to a Low Carbon Future,” TEDxTruro, January 21, 2020,, accessed July 28, 2021.

36) Ronald J. Deibert, “RESET, Reclaiming the Internet for Civil Society”, (p. 221), CBC Massey Lectures, The House of Anansi Press, 2020, audio:,
Accessed March 29, 2021.

37), accessed July 25, 2021.

38) Wil S. Hylton, History’s Largest Mining Operation Is About To Begin; It’s underwater – and the consequences are unimaginable,” January/February 2020 Issue,, accessed April 10, 2021.

39) Tom Peacock, “Mining the Deep Sea,” TEDxMIT, January 23, 2020,, accessed July 28, 2021.

40) Ibid.

41) Ibid.

42) “A battery in a rock. Polymetallic nodules are the cleanest path toward electric vehicles.” The Metals Company,, accessed Jul 29, 2021.

43) “Deep Sea Mining”, Center for Biological Diversity, , accessed July 27, 2021.

44) Polymetallic Nodules, UK Seabed Resources, (a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, UK),, accessed July 25, 2021.

45) International Seabed Authority, Exploration Contracts,, accessed July 27, 2021.

46) “Predicting The Impacts Of Mining Deep Sea Polymetallic Nodules In The Pacific Ocean; A Review of the Scientific Literature,” Deep Sea Mining Campaign, Miningwatch Canada, May 2020, accessed May 25, 2021.

47) Vaclav Smil, “Growth; From Microorganisms to Megacities,” MIT Press, September 2019, p. xxii.

48) Ibid., p. 454.













(1) KORE website with overview of Imperial Gold Project

(2)Technical Report for the Imperial Gold Project, California, USA. SRK Consulting (Canada) Inc. December 30, 2019.




(1) Barnett, J. K., and J. A. Crawford. 1994. Pre-laying nutrition of Sage Grouse hens in Oregon. Journal of Range Management 47:114–118.
(2) Connelly, J.W., S.T. Knick, M.A. Schroeder, and S. J. Stiver. 2004. Conservation assessment of greater sage-grouse and sagebrush habitats. Unpublished Report, Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. Cheyenne, WY. 610 pp.
(3) U.S. Department of Interior Office of Hearings and Appeals. Appeal and petition for stay from Acting Assistant Field Manager final decision dated September 12, 2008 involving Duck Creek Allotment, Salt Lake (BLM) Field Office, Utah UT-020-09-01.
(4) U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Hearings and Appeals. 2013. Western Watersheds Project and Wild Utah Project v. Bureau of Land Management. Order UT-020-09-01.
(5) Carter, J., Catlin, J. C., Hurwitz, N., Jones, A. L., and Ratner, J. 2017. Upland water and deferred rotation effects on cattle use in riparian and upland areas. Rangelands, 39(3-4), 112-118. Catlin, J. C., Carter, J. G., and Jones, A. L. (2011). Range management in the face of climate change. Natural Resources and Environmental Issues, 17(1), 24.
(6) Bureau of Land Management v. Western Watersheds Project & Wild Utah Project / IBLA 2013-168 & 2013-180.
(8) Bureau of Land Management. 1997. Standard and guidelines for healthy rangelands. Utah State Office.
(9) ibid page 210.
(10) 2015 National Defense Authorization Act, P.L. 113-291.




(1) A Plan for Nevada’s Renewable Energy and Wildlands.

(2) Basin and Range Watch Files an Appeal to Stop Yellow Pine Solar Project

(3) Green Light Study: Economic and Conservation Benefits of Low-Impact Solar Siting in California.

(4) California Utilities Commission approves disputed power line.

(5) Recommendations of Independent Science Advisors for The California Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP).



(1) Initiative for Responsible Mining Assurance,










1), (accessed February 28, 2020)

2) Ibid.

3) Ibid.

4)  (accessed October 1, 2020)

5) Author telephone interview with Jayson O’Neill; November 2, 2020

6)  (Accessed August 24, 2020)

7) (Accessed August 24, 2020)

8) Ibid.

9) Ibid.

10) (Accessed August 25, 2020)

11) (Accessed October 7, 2020)

12) 2020 Washington State Tourism Alliance Conference, October 8, 2020. Panel discussion: The Future of Outdoor Tourism; panelist Chip Jenkins, Superintendent of Mt. Rainier National Park.  Also personal communication with author: November 6, 2020.

13) (Accessed August 25, 2020)

14)  “Crisis in our National Parks: How Tourists are Loving Nature to Death” By: Charlotte Simmonds, Annette McGivney, Patrick Reilly, Brian Maffly, Todd Wilkinson, Gabrielle Cano, Michael Wright and Monte Whaley.  November 20, 2018 national parks-america-overcrowding

15) Ibid.

16)  Author telephone Interview with William Sloan, NPS Wildlife Biologist, October 26, 2020.

17) Ibid.

18) Author communication with Monika von Behr, July 6, 2020

19) Jon Snyder, Senior Policy Advisor to Washington State Governor Jay Inslee, 2020 Washington State Tourism Alliance Conference, October 8, 2020. Participant in panel discussion: The Future of Outdoor Tourism, and personal communication with author November 5, 2020.

20) Hillary Franz, Washington State Commissioner of Public Lands, 2020 Washington State Tourism Alliance Conference, October 8, 2020. Participant in panel discussion: The Future of Outdoor Tourism.

21) Author telephone interview with Carla Jellum, October 12, 2020.


23) (accessed: February 20, 2020).  Communication with author, November 17, 2020

24) (accessed: February 20, 2020)


26) Telephone Interview with Dr. Margaret Wheatley; February 27, 2020

27)  Ibid.

28) Ibid.



(1) DeVoto, B. A. 1947. The West Against Itself. The Harpers Monthly, January: pp. 1-13. []

(2) Wilson, R. K. 2014. America’s Public Lands: From Yellowstone to Smokey Bear and Beyond. London: Rowman & Littlefield.

(3) Annenberg Classroom. 2020. Free Classroom Resources for Teaching the Constitution. Philadelphia, PA: The Annenberg Public Policy Center. []

(4) Rutherford, David J. 2018. America’s Public Lands: What, Where, Why, and What Next? Focus on Geography 61. [].

(5) Wilderness Connect. ND. The Wilderness Act. Missoula MT: University of Montana. []

(6) Miller, Amy. 2015. Infographic: the impossibly long Code of Federal Regulations. Barrington, RI: Legal Insurrection Foundation. []

(7) The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. 2018. About the Code of Federal Regulations. Washington D.C.: Author. []

(8) Legal Information Institute. 2020. CFR: Table of Contents. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Law School. []

(9) National Environmental Policy Act. ND. Annual Environmental Quality Reports. Washington DC: Council on Environmental Quality. []

(10) Council on Environmental Quality. 1997. Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act. Washington DC: Council on Environmental Quality Executive Office of the President. []

(11) Neumayr, Mary B. 2020. A needed update to the nation’s environmental rules. Washington DC: Washington Examiner. []

(12) Federal Register. 2017. Comprehensive Plan for Reorganizing the Executive Branch. []

(13) Siegler, Kirk. 2020. BLM Acting Director Defends Agency’s Controversial Move To Colorado. National Public Radio. []

(14) Wine and Water Watch. 2019. New BLM headquarters share a building with a Chevron corporate office. Sonoma County, CA: Wine and Water Watch. []



  1. Tempest Williams, T., 2016. The Hour of Land: A Personal Topography of America’s National Parks. Sarah Crichton Books, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, New York 10011. P 12.
  2. p. 209
  3. Tempest Williams, T., 2001, 2002. Red: Passion and Patience in the Desert. Vintage Books, a division of Random House., Inc., New York. p. 76.
  4. Tempest Williams, T., 2016. The Hour of Land: A Personal Topography of America’s National Parks. Sarah Crichton Books, Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, New York 10011. P 209.
  5. p. 59.
  6. p. 364



(1) See

(2) See


(4) Williamson, M. et al. (2019). Fire, livestock grazing, topography, and precipitation affect occurrence and prevalence of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in the central Great Basin, USA. Biological Invasions. Springer Nature Switzerland.; Reisner, M. D., Grace, J. B., Pyke, D. A. and Doescher, P. S. 2013. Conditions favouring Bromus tectorum dominance of endangered sagebrush steppe ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50(4): 1039-1049. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12097.



1) This bill also proposed authorization for the Lake Powell Pipeline, which would also impact the tortoise, but that’s another story. The Pipeline is going through the NEPA process at the same time as the Highway, and Conserve Southwest Utah is organizing its public commenting too.

2) See documents on the BLM website

3) von Seckendorff, Hoff and Marlow, 2002

4) See DEIS Vol 3, section 5.1.1 on the BLM project website listed in (2) above.



(1) State of the Parks Report, 1980, Executive Summary

(2)  Title IV of the National Parks Omnibus Management Act of 1998, Public Law 105-391

(3) Dr. Patrick Gonzales, Human caused climate changes in the United States national parks and solutions for the future, Park Stewardship Forum,

(4) The Directed Reassignments of John Mumma and L. Lorraine Mintzmyer: Hearing …

By United States, United States. Congress. House. Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. Subcommittee on Civil Service, Hearing, September 24, 1991

(5) Statement of Jonathan B. Jarvis, Nominee for Director, National Park Service Before the U. S. Senate Committee on Energy & Natural Resources, July 2009



(1) Daggett Solar Power Facility Administrative Draft Biological Resources Technical Report, Page 19 All reports are at



(4) Robin Kobaly. The Desert Under Our Feet. Desert Report. March 2019. Kathy Morrison. Carbon Sequestration. Flora. Fall 20;

(5) Daggett Solar Power facility EIR 3.0 Errata, page 3-2.

(6) The publication title is The Desert Underground: Exposing a Valuable Hidden World Under Our Feet. Available through The Summertree Institute.

(7) J.R. McAuliffe, E.P. Hamerlynck, M.C. Eppes. Landscape dynamics fostering the development and persistence of long-lived creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) clones in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Arid Environments 69- (2007) 96-126.

(8) Daggett Final EIR. Master Response 4 – Monitoring Stations. 2.0 Comment Letters and Responses to Comments Page 2-12. Scroll to Daggett Solar Power Facility.

(9) R. D. Evans, A. Koyama, D. L. Sonderegger, T. N. Charlet, B. A. Newingham, L. F. Fenstermaker, B. Harlow, V. L. Jin, K. Ogle, S. D. Smith, and R. S. Nowak. Greater ecosystem carbon in the Mojave Desert after ten years exposure to elevated CO2. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 6 APRIL 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2184;

(10) WSU professor finds dry deserts absorb unexpected carbon levels. RENEE MCCANN | Evergreen reporter, April 21, 2014;

(11) Leslie Richardson, Christopher Huber, Zhiliang Zhu, and Lynne Koontz. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in National Parks Values for the Conterminous United States. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/EQD/NRR—2014/880;



(1) 2015-2017 BSSG Progress Reports are on this website:

(2) 2018 and 2019 Bi-state Sage Grouse counts were presented orally and in slides at the BSSG Local Area Working Group meeting on June 5, 2019 held in Walker, CA, which I attended. They have not been officially released.






(8) Copy of lawsuit filed:



(1) Address of President Roosevelt at Grand Canyon, Arizona, May 6, 1903. Theodore Roosevelt papers. Library of Congress Manuscript Division Theodore Roosevelt Digital Library. Dickinson State University, Dickinson, North Dakota

(2) Such an airport would never be so easily built today! But it, along with the Glen Canyon Dam, were completed in the last few years prior to passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970. Both slipped in under the wire.

(3) Exception: voluntary plans for two south Florida parks (Biscayne and Big Cypress.



1. 711 Ag producers and 396 farms in Imperial County (2017 Agricultural Census)
2. 3.4 million U.S. ag producers. 327.2 million population (7/1/18 Census Estimate)
3. 711 Ag Producers. 181,827 Imperial County Population (7/1/18 Census Estimate)
4. ICAPCD Table 5-2 PM 10 2018 Inventory
5 ICAPCD Smoke Management Plan
6. ICAPCD Rule 701 (Ag Burning)
7. ICAPCD Policy 37 (Good Neighbor Policy)
8. ICAPCD Policy 34, 37 and Rule 701(Smoke Management Program)
9. ICAPCD Rule 214.3 (Emission Reduction Credits)
10. Reyes Romero, Imperial County Assistant Air Pollution Control Officer
11. ICAPCD Rule 806 (Conservation Management Practices)
12. Rachel Garewal, Imperial Deputy Ag Commissioner (Pesticide Use Enforcement)
13. Imperial Irrigation Districts Crop Acreage Reports



“Mixing Art, Activism and Science. And Some Tropical Fish.” By Lisa Bend. New York Times, February 7, 2019.

“Jenny Holzer’s Desert X Installation Postponed Over Concern for Bighorn Sheep” by Lauren Messman, the New York Times Feb 7, 2019.

“Desert X Installation Won’t be Activated for Fear of Endangering Bighorn Sheep,” the Desert Sun Newspaper online published Feb 7, 2019.

“Desert X art show puts a Jenny Holzer installation on hold over animal welfare worries.” By Debra Vankin. Los Angeles Times, February 5, 2019.

Email Correspondence with Anonymous Palm Springs resident/author. Conducted by Ruth Nolan. February 5, 2019.



1) Dioxins refers to a group of toxic chemical compounds that share certain chemical structures and biological characteristics, Dioxins are produced as a result of human activities like the backyard burning of trash or formed as a result of combustion processes such as waste incineration (commercial or municipal) or from burning fuels (like wood, coal or oil). EPA’s 2006 Dioxin Inventory of Sources Report.

2) Clark, Chris. Imperial County: Toxic Capital of the California Desert. KCET, April 29, 2013.

3) Underwood, Marilyn Phd., California Department of Public Health. Letter sent to Mr. Poiriez, dated November 2, 2009.



1) This is a poem I wrote on June 4, 2014

2) The term “technology” in this article is an aggregate of all forms of technologies that have been created since the industrial revolution—especially applicable to all those created in the digital age.

3) “World” and “Earth” are not synonyms; the term “world” is social construct commonly used to describe an earthly state of existence. As such, I use the world to describe the ideological understandings of where we live and how we might want to live in these places (think ‘worldview’).

4) Whiteness is a term used to describe white privilege and the implicit, systemic advantages that white people have in relation to people of color—and, I suggest, the whole of the Earth—who are objectified and dehumanized by racism and oppression at large. Whiteness makes invisible the needs and plight of those who exist outside of it, by only centering the needs and desires of those in power.

5) Likewise, “Earth” and “World” are not synonyms; I use the term “Earth” to describe our home which we share with all the wondrous, living, breathing, feeling beings we share place with. When I say “Earth” I am attempting to recognize other species as people, as teachers. They teach us about interdependence and coexistence, they teach us about rhythms and seasons. Earth is not an “it” To refer to the Earth as an itrobs the Earth of selfhood and kinship.

6) I borrow this phrase from Dr. Cornel West.

7) Aimé Césaire (1955, 1972) Audre Lorde (1984), Aurora Levins Morales (1998), bell hooks (1981, 1994, 1999, 2000), Chandra Talpade Mohanty (2003), Eve Tuck (2012), Frantz Fanon (1952), Gloria Anzaldúa (1987), Juanita Nelson (1988), Linda Tuhiwai Smith (1999), Patricia Hill Collins (1990)

8)  In my own cosmology, Earth is my source; the mother of all creation. This comes from my ancestral lineage of being both African and Latinx. When I speak of the Earth as she/her, I am attempting to invoke ancient and indigenous cosmologies of the Earth as mother, for it is she who makes possible the existence of all life. That said, I am fully aware of how the conception of Earth as woman has been abused and exploited through patriarchal, gendered and sexist language that reinforces stereotypes and hierarchies. Men, like me, have a vital role to play; not to oppress, subjugate or dominate, but to honor and rekindle the sacred, matriarchal nature of life.

9) Term by co-originator of permaculture concept, David Holmgren in his four scenarios for the future. Permaculturalist and author Toby Hemenway (2010) also used this term in a lecture entitled “How Permaculture Can Save Humanity and the Planet – But Not Civilization” at Duke’s Nicholas School of the Environment.



Abella SR (2010) Disturbance and Plant Succession in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of the American Southwest. Int J Environ Res Public Health7(4): 12481284. Published online 2010 Mar 25. doi: 10.3390/ijerph7041248

*Allen MF, Jenerette GD, Santiago LS (2013) Carbon Balance in California Deserts: Impacts of Widespread Solar Power GenerationCalifornia Energy Commission Publication number: CEC-500-2013-063 

Allen MF, Barrows CW, Bell MD, Jenerette GD, Johnson RF, Allen EB (2014) Threats to Californias Desert Ecosystems. Fremontia 42: 3-8

Belnap J, Hawkes CV, Firestone MK (2003) Boundaries in Miniature: Two Examples from Soil. BioScience53(8): 739–749

*Belnap J, Lange OL, eds. (2003) Biological Soil Crusts: Structure, Function, and Management2nd ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag

*Bloss, HE (1985) Studies of Symbiotic Microflora and Their Role in the Ecology of Desert Plants. Desert Plants 7: 119-127

*Bowers JE, Webb RH, Rondeau RJ. (1995) Longevity, recruitment and mortality of desert plants in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science 6(4): 551-564

Bowns JE, West NE (1976) Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima Torr.) on southwestern Utah rangelands. Research Report 27. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station Logan, Utah, USA

Bucking, H, Mensah J, Fellbaum CR (2016) Common mycorrhizal networks and their effect on the bargaining power of the fungal partner in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Communicative Integrative Biology 9(1) e1107684

Christensen EM, Brown RC (1963) A blackbrush over 400 years old. Journal of Range Management 16: 118

Cody ML (2000) Slow-motion population dynamics in Mojave Desert perennial plants. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 351358

*Comis D, (2002) Glomalin: Hiding Place for a Third of the World’s Stored Soil Carbon. Agricultural Research Magazine Sept. 2002: 4-7

Evans RD, Koyama A, Sonderegger DL, Charlet TN, Newingham BA, Fenstermaker LF, Harlow B, Jun VL, Ogle K, Smith SD, Nowak, RS (2014) Greater ecosystem carbon in the Mojave Desert after ten years exposure to elevated CO2.  Nature Climate Change 4: 394–397

Francis R, Read DJ (1984) Direct transfer of carbon between plants connected by vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium. Nature 307:53–56 

*Gibbens RP, Lenz JM (2001) Root Systems of some Chihuahuan Desert Plants. Journal of Arid Environments 49: 221-263

Gorzelak MA, Asay AK, Pickles BJ, Simard SW (2015) Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities. AoB PLANTS, Volume 7, 1 January 2015

Green LE, Porras-Alfaro A, Sinsabaugh RL (2008) Translocation of Nitrogen and Carbon Integrates Biotic Crust and Grass Production in Desert Grassland. Journal of Ecology96: 413-20

Hernandez RR, Hoffacker MK, Murphy-Mariscal ML, Wu G, and Allen MF (2015) Solar energy development impacts on land-cover change and protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 112: 13579-14584

*Hernandez RR, Easter SB, Murphy-Mariscal ML, Maestre FT, Tavassoli M, Allen EB, Barrows CW, Belnap J, Ochoa-Hueso R, Ravi S, Allen MF (2014) Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 29: 766-779

Jasoni RL, Smith SD, Arnone JA (2005) Net ecosystem CO2 exchange in Mojave Desert shrublands during the eighth year of exposure to elevated CO2. Global Change Biology 11: 749756

*Lovich JE, Bainbridge D (1999) Anthropogenic Degradation of the Southern California Desert Ecosystem and Prospects for Natural Recovery and Restoration. Environmental Management 1999 Oct. 24(3): 309-326

MooreO’Leary KA, Hernandez RR, Johnston DS, Abella SR, Tanner KE, Swanson AC, Kreitler J, Lovich JE (2017)Sustainability of utilityscale solar energy – critical ecological concepts. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 15 (7): 385-394

Schlesinger WH (2016)An evaluation of abiotic carbon sinks in deserts. Global Change Biology 23(1): 25-27

Schlesinger WH (1985) The formation of caliche in soils of the Mojave Desert, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 49: 57-66

Schlesinger WH, Belnap J, Marion G (2009) On carbon sequestration in desert ecosystems. Global Change Biology 15: 1488-1490

Serrano-Ortiz P, Roland M, Sanchez-Moral S, Janssens IA, Domingo F, Godderis Y, Kowalski  AS (2010) Hidden, abiotic CO2 flows and gaseous reservoirs in the terrestrial carbon cycle: Review and perspectives. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 150: 321-329

Swanson, AC (2017) Disturbance, Restoration, and Soil Carbon Dynamics in Desert and Tropical Ecosystems. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California, Riverside

Tester M, Smith SE, Smith FA (1987) The phenomenon of “nonmycorrhizal” plants. Can. J. Bot. 65: 419-431

Weber B, Budel B, Belnap J (2016) Biological Soil Crusts: An Organizing Principle in Drylands. Switzerland: Springer



Kangaroo rats also have unique, enlarged hindlimb muscles that allow them to perform amazing, high-powered acrobatic leaps within milliseconds of perceiving a predator’s attack. This combination of super hearing and leaping allow them to avoid a rattlesnake strike in about a quarter of the time it takes you to blink an eye (!

Kangaroo rats are so good at avoiding snakes they can appear to be cocky about it. They perform a variety of harassing displays towards snakes, including kicking sand (, drumming on the ground with their hind feet (, and repeatedly approaching then jumping away ( These behaviors inform the snake that it has been detected and display the escape ability of the kangaroo rats, which then dissuades snakes from continuing to hunt in that area.

The strikes were unsuccessful due almost entirely to the kangaroo rats being able to rapidly leap out of the path of the strike (

Primed kangaroo rats had quicker reaction times, faster take-off velocities, and jumped more vertically relative to the ground, indicating that they could more effectively avoid the strike than control kangaroo rats (

So, we’re still gathering the requisite data to test our ideas, but you can at least see some examples from our high speed cameras at our YouTube channel (


References for Rearranging The Planet To Save It By Robert L. Chianese (December 2018)

Boxall, B. 2017. From spectacular vistas to the pits: A decades-long public land battle continues in the California desert.Los Angeles Times, August 7.

Desert Tortoise Council. 2017. Forty-Second Annual Meeting and Symposia Abstracts.

Edwards, T., and K. H. Berry. 2013. Are captive tortoises a reservoir for conservation? Anassessment of genealogical affiliation of captive Gopherus agassizii to local, wild populations. Conservation Genetics 14:649–659.

Green, E. 2013. Can we save Mojave Desert tortoises by moving them out of harm’s way? High Country News, August 11.

Milius, S. 2014. Windows may kill up to 988 million birds a year in the United States.

Science News 185(6):8. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2009. Desert Tortoise (Mojave Population) Field Manual (Gopherus agassizii).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2017. Status of the Desert Tortoise and Its Critical Habitat.


References for Which Way The Wind Blows – So Goes The Dust: In The Mojave River Valley By Pat Flanagan (September 2018)

(1) Click on APN numbers for maps.

(2) David R. Bedford and David M. Miller. USGS Poster 2013. Assessing the geology and geography of large-footprint installations in the Mojave Desert, California and Nevada. PDF available.




(6) David A. Bainbridge. A Guide for Desert and Dryland Restoration: New Hope for Arid Lands. 2007. Island Press. Page 22.


(8) For more on the MDRCD its mission and ongoing work go to



(11) Julie Laity (2003) Aeolian Destabilization Along the Mojave River, Mojave Desert, California: Linkages Among Fluvial, Groundwater, and Aeolian Systems, Physical Geography, 24:3, 196-221 PDF attached.





References for Salton Sea Air Quality By Earl Withycombe (September2018)

(1) Sea Air Quality Mitigation Program: 2016/2017 Annual Report and Emissions Estimates, prepared for Imperial Irrigation District in cooperation with the County of Imperial by Formation Environmental, LLC, Air Sciences Inc., and PlanTierra LLC, June 2018, and accessed on July 22, 2018

(2) Salton Sea Air Quality, Earl Withycombe, California Resources Board, presented at “Shrinking Shorelines and the Salton Sea: Consideration of Community Input, Recent Research, and Possible Solutions.” University of California Riverside, Palm Desert Campus, May 11, 2018

(3) PI-SWERL: Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Lab, Desert Research Institute, accessed on July 22, 2018

(4) Salton Sea Ecosystem Restoration Program Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Report, Appendix E, Attachment E4 – Constituents of Potential Concern in Sediments and Soils, and their Potential to Affect Human Health: .

(5) Characterization of Shallow Sub-Surface Sediments of the Salton Sea, 2003:

Occurrence, Distribution, and Transport of Pesticides, Trace Elements, and Selected Inorganic Constituents into the Salton Sea Basin, California, 2001-2002: .

Pesticides and PCBs in sediments and fish from the Salton Sea, California, USA: .

Pesticides in Water and Suspended Sediment of the Alamo and New Rivers, Imperial Valley/Salton Sea Basin, California, 2006–2007: .

Dissolved Pesticides in the Alamo River and the Salton Sea, California, 1996-97: .

Pesticide Concentrations in Water and in Suspended and Bottom Sediments in the New and Alamo Rivers, Salton Sea Watershed, California, April 2003: .


References for Pinyon-juniper Woodland Management in Nevada By Laura Cunningham (June 2017)

(1) Woodhouse’s scrub jay (Aphelocoma woodhouseii), Juniper Titmouse (Baeolophus ridgwayi), bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus), black-throated gray warbler (Setophaga nigrescens.

(2) Mule deer,(Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus canadensis), rabbits and cottontails, pocket mice (Chaetodipus spp.), pinyon mice (Peromyscus truei), chipmunks (Tamias spp.), bats, Western spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius), coyote (Canis latrans), mountain lion (Felis concolor), and bobcat (Lynx rufus).

(3) Juniper (Juniperus spp.),  sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, A. arbuscula, A. nova), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus), green ehpdra (Ephedra viridis), antelope bitterbrush (Purshia tridentata), and numerous grasses and forbs.

(4) John Sawyer, Todd Keeler-Wolf, and Julie Evens. 2009. A Manual of California Vegetation. California Native Plant Society: Sacramento. Second Edition.

(5) Julio Betancourt, Thomas Van Devender, and Paul Martin (eds.). 1990. Packrat Middens: The Last 40,000 Years of Biotic Change. The University of Arizona Press: Tucson.




References for Tick Borne Diseases? Yes, Even in the Deserts by Edie Harmon (June 2017)

  1. Imperial County Health Department, Epidemiologists Dr. Maria Fierro and Carla Lucas. Phone conversations and email communications with Harmon in 2009, 2015, 2016, and 2017.
  2. Lane, RS, Kjemtrup AM. 2016 Pest Notes “Lyme disease in California.” Integrated Pest Management for Homes, Gardens and Landscapes. Univ. CA Agric. And Natural Resources, UC Davis.
  3. Green G, Kjemtrup, et al. 2014 Tick-borne infections in California. Sonoma Medicine Fall 2014.
  4. Eisen RJ, Eisen L, Beard C. 2016. “County-scale distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the continental Unites States.” Journal of Medical Entomology, 2016, 1–38  doi:
  5. CDC 2015, March 4. How many people get Lyme disease? “Preliminary results from three different evaluation methods suggest that the number of people diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the United States is around 300,000.
  6. CDPH-VBDS 2011. “Lyme disease in California” Brochure
  7. CDC 2017   And CDC 2011
  8. CDPH-VBDS 2016? “Epidemiology and prevention of tick-borne diseases in California: Information for Physicians and Other Health-Care and Public Health Professionals” . 131 pps.  P. 4 pf 131 is a table of tick-borne diseases in CA, the agent/pathogen causing the disease and the tick vector, p. 7 identifies the 8 species of ticks that bite humans
  9. CDC-MMWR 2016 “Diagnosis and Management of Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and other Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses, Ehrlichoses, and Anaplasmosis – United States.: A Practical Guide for Health Care and Public Health Professionals.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Recommendations and Reports. Vol. 65 No. 2. May 13, 2016. 48 pps.


References for Earth, Air, and… Politics: Questions, Answers, and More Questions at the Salton Sea by Craig Deutsche (June 2017)

  1. Wikipedia on QSA
  2. Quantifiation Settlement Agreement and related agreements and documents to which Southern Califronia Agencies are Signatories
  3. Nov 18, 2014 letter from IID to hold a stakeholders meeting
  4. Salton Sea Task Force website
  5. MOU federal/state
  6. IIS letter to SWRCB, November 15, 2016
  7. 7. SSMP, Phase I
  8. IID letter to SWRCB, Marcy 15, 2017


References for Ocotillo Wind Energy Facility: Wrong from the Start by Parke & Linda Ewing (March 2017)

1. OWEF Plan of Development:



4. OWEF Imperial County Planning & Development Services (EIR)

5. Basin and Range Watch

6. 1603 Cash Grant Awards; (Click on List of Awards)


8. Ocotillo Wind Website

9. Radar Activated Obstruction Lighting System for Wind Turbines


The Perfect (Dust) Storm by Pat Flanagan (March 2017)

1. Zimbelman, Williams, and Tchakerian. 1995. Sand Transport Paths in the Mojave Desert, Southwestern United States. Desert Aeolian Processes. Ed. Vatche P. Tchakerian. Chapman & Hall. See map page 105. pdf

2. NRCS Plant Communities Accessed 2/1/2017

3. On my 5 acres atop the STP I measured 3 clones ranging from approximately 450 to 700 years old. To get the age estimate divide the radius of the clone by the average growth rate (Mojave Desert) of 0.03 inches/year. Frank C. Vasek. 1980. Creosote Bush: Long Lived Clones in the Mojave Desert. Am. Jour. Of Botany 67: 246-255. Accessed 2/3/2017


5. PM2.5 is often listed with PM10 but will not be discussed in this article. PM 2.5 is 2.5 micrometers in diameter or smaller, and can only be seen with an electron microscope. Fine particles are produced by all types of combustion.

6. Particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), photochemical oxidants (O3), and lead (Pb).




10. The Lucerne Valley and Twentynine Palms stations monitor PM10 but are not used to determine the ambient baseline conditions for Morongo Basin solar projects. Lucerne Valley registers 2.8 days above the National ambient air quality standards. See footnote #7. This would be a better fit for the Morongo Basin baseline until a PM10 air monitoring station is installed in Twentynine Palms or the JTNP Oasis Visitor Center.

11. Rule 403.2 (C) Requirements

12. Rule 403.2 (G)(7)(a)(ii) Page 13

13. The monitoring station on the 29 Palms Marine Base measures for PM10 but the District does not use if for baseline calculations because dust rising from Base operations would skew the data.

14. See the California Emissions Estimator Model

15. Geomorphic Assessment and Sand Transport Impacts Analysis of the Colorado River Sub Station. Prepared for CPUC and Aspen Environmental. Revised Feb. 2, 2011. ESA PWA (pdf attached)


References for Countdown For The Salton Sea by Craig Deutsche (September 2016)

1. QSA:
2. 2007 EIS with proposals:
3. Pacific Institute: Consequences of Inaction:
4. Department of Natural Resources – Salton Sea (with many other links): ;


References for Air We Can Not Breathe by Marina Barragan (June 2016)

  4. Environmental injustice, often in the form of environmental racism, occurs when local governments or companies build environmentally detrimental infrastructure in minority communities. Not only do the communities suffer from the health effects of these projects, but their access to health care is also limited by the often rural and low-income nature of their towns.
  6. Sierra Club My Generation Campaign is a youth led campaign fighting for 100% clean energy with leaders from the frontline communities
  12. The GrEAT Sierra Alliance is a collaboration between the GrEAT Academy at Desert Mirage High School, Sierra Club San Gorgonio Chapter and Sierra Club My Generation Campaign



References for Blowing In The Wind: Airborne Dust and Valley Fever by Edie Harmon and Craig Deutsche (June 2016)

1. A long article in the Atlantic Monthly discussing many aspects of the disease.

2. CDC on symptoms of Valley Fever.

3. Epidemiological studies on Valley Fever in California.

4. Detailed report on military studies of disease during WWII.

5. Gorilla with Cocciodioidomycosis in Los Angels Zoo.

6. Relative incidence and funding of Valley Fever and West Nile Virus.

7. Transfer of prison population in California.

8. On incidence of disease among construction workers at solar energy facility.